Annotated Biblography

Annotated Biblography

I have researched many resources and am providing this annotated bibliography of the best for new, experienced, and aspiring superintendents who want to enhance their effectiveness in the topics related to this module.

Council of Chief State School Officers. (2008). Educational leadership policy standards: ISLLC 2008. Retrieved from
In 2008, the National Policy Board for Educational Administration (NPBEA) adopted CCSSO’s newly republished ISLLC standards in response to calls from educational leaders and other stakeholders for updated leadership standards. While the ‘footprint’ of the standards remains the same, ISLLC 2008 standards are intended to be explicitly policy-oriented and designed to be used for policy creation and the lifelong career development and support of education leaders.

DiPaola, M. (2010). Evaluating the superintendent: a white paper from the American Association of School Administrators. Retrieved from
This white paper is provided by the American Association of School Administrators as a useful reference to new and experienced superintendents and to school boards about the various aspects of the superintendent evaluation process in an era of heightened focus on educator performance and evaluation. The report emphasizes the importance of building an evaluation system on a foundation of clearly described performance standards with observable performance indicators. There is a list on page 13 of the report of the twelve states that have agreed-upon superintendent standards and/or competencies for performance appraisal.

DiPaola, M. (2007). Revisiting superintendent evaluation. The School Administrator, 64 (6). Retrieved from
In this article, DiPaola notes that a logical first step in the development of an effective superintendent evaluation system is to specify the performance standards that will serve as the expectations of the job. He notes the importance of using multiple sources of data in the evaluation of a superintendent including, but not limited to student performance data.

DiPaola, M. & Strong, J. (2001). Credible evaluation: not yet state-of-the-art. The School Administrator, 58 (2). Retrieved from
The authors take a broad look at the state of superintendent evaluation systems across the country after collecting and analyzing superintendent evaluation procedures, guidelines, and instruments issued by state departments of education. DiPaola and Stronge note that assessment criteria are often weak and that few comprehensive evaluation models exist. They also stresses the importance of basing evaluation systems on agreed-upon performance standards and corresponding competencies.

Hessel, K. M., & Holloway, J. (2002). A framework for school leaders: linking the ISLLC standards to practice. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall.
This book provides a comprehensive look at the implementation of the ISLLC standards, linking them to the practice of school leaders. It includes an overview of the ISLLC framework and a history of the evolution of school leadership over time.

Hoyle, J. R., Bjork, L. G., Collier, V., & Glass, T. (2005). The superintendent as CEO: Standards-based performance. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
The authors use the AASA Professional Standards for Superintendents as a lens through which they examine standards-based performance expectations of superintendents as school district CEOs. They chose to use the AASA standards over ISLLC citing weaknesses in ISLLC including limited scope and significantly different skill sets required of building level leaders as compared to district level leaders. They included enlightening case study scenarios and discussion questions at the end of each chapter.

Klauke, Amy. (1988). Performance standards for school superintendents. ERIC Digest Series (Number EA34). Retrieved from
In this question-and-answer formatted article, Klauke notes several benefits to establishing a set of performance expectations for superintendent evaluations including cost effectiveness, crisis management reduction, and setting and maintaining direction.

Kowalski, T. J. (2011). The American school superintendent: 2010 decennial study. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Education.
Chapter 6 of the study is devoted to various aspects of superintendents’ interactions with school boards including primary board expectations and performance evaluation. Kowalski found that most superintendents’ evaluations consist of checklists or rating scales focused on traits, skills, knowledge, and style. He also notes that only 13% of respondents said they were evaluated in a formative process, more than once each year. The author concurred that defined performance criteria should serve as the basis of the evaluation.

Lewis, T., Rice, M., & Rice, Jr., R. (2011). Superintendents’ beliefs and behaviors regarding instructional leadership standards reform. The International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation, 6 (1). Retrieved from
This research study examines the perceptions of superintendents regarding various aspects of the Alabama superintendent performance standards system. The authors chronicle the development of the Alabama standards and share data collected from superintendents about their implementation and impact. Some notable beliefs on the part of superintendent respondents include: (1) Alabama superintendents identified teaching and learning as the most important for increasing student achievement and (2) most participants ranked face-to-face workshops as the preferred professional development delivery method. The authors note, however, that professional development for superintendents must include an integration of emerging technology delivery options with the desired face-to-face interaction.

Marzano, R. & Waters, T. (2009). District leadership that works: Striking the balance. Bloomington, IN:Solution Tree Press.
In this book, Marzano and Waters explore the impact of district-level leadership on student learning. They employed a meta-analysis methodology to synthesize available research across the topic of school district leadership. Their stated goal was to uncover the construct relationship between the actions of district leadership and student achievement. The results of their study are presented as chapters in the book devoted to those leadership actions and behaviors that are most directly correlated to student achievement.

North Carolina State Board of Education. (2007). North Carolina standards for superintendents. Retrieved from
The North Carolina standards were used in the development of the Kentucky Next-Gen Superintendent Effectiveness Standards pilot. The seven standards were adapted from a Wallace Foundation study and reflect McREL’s work on the effect of superintendent leadership on student achievement. These standards were among the standards used as the source for the pilot KY superintendent effectiveness standards.

Petersen, G. J., & Young, M. D. (2004). The No Child Left Behind Act and its influence on current and future district leaders. Journal of Law and Education, 33(3), 343 - 363.
The authors take a comprehensive look at the influence of No Child Left Behind on the work of current and future superintendents. They emphasize that, because of external accountability, the role of superintendent as instructional leader is more important than ever before; therefore, superintendent preparation programs and professional development programs must change in order to ensure that superintendents are prepared to support the success of all children. They also stress the need for supporting new superintendents toward that goal through induction, mentoring, and networking opportunities.

Reform Support Network. (2011). Great teachers and leaders: State considerations on building systems of educator effectiveness. Retrieved from

This report, commissioned by the US Department of Education, provides a solid overview of the national effort, inspired by the implementation of Common Core State Standards and the various Race to the Top initiatives, to create systems of educator effectiveness. The report represents a synthesis of the discussions and expert thinking of Race to the Top state participants about the early challenges they faced as they designed and built performance-based systems of teacher and leader effectiveness.

Rockwood, P.R. (2010). Board and superintendent perceptions of the Illinois professional standards for school leaders critical for superintendent success. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Proquest LLC. (UMI No. 3438728).
The purpose of this study was to determine what differences existed between the perceptions of Illinois public school superintendents and their school board presidents as to which performance competencies in the ISLLC-based Illinois Standards for School Leaders were considered most critical for success in the superintendency. The study includes a thorough review of the use of ISLLC as the basis for the Illinois school leader evaluation system and the author highlights the importance of employing a standards-based competency model as the basis for preparing, hiring, developing, and hiring effective superintendents. Rockwood notes that the use of a competency model can provide the framework for determining superintendent professional development based on individual competencies that need further development and improvement.

Santiago-Marullo, D. A. (2010). School superintendents' perceptions of the American Association of School Administrators' professional standards for the superintendency. (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest LLC. (UMI No. 3421832).
This study looked at the perceptions of superintendents in New York about those indicators from the AASA superintendent performance standards that contributed most to their success as superintendents. The researcher used a survey to gauge respondents perceptions about 33 of the 81 indicators on a five-point scale with 5 being 'extremely important.' The indicator with the highest mean score for importance was "Promote academic rigor and excellence for staff" from AASA Standard One: Leadership and District Culture. The second highest score went to "Write and speak clearly and forcefully," Standard Three: Communications and Community Relations. This study provides a good format that we could replicate to gather feedback on the new KY Superintendent Effectiveness Standards from new and experienced KY superintendents.

Spanneut, G., Tobin, J., & Ayers, S. (2011). Identifying the professional development needs of school superintendents. Retrieved from
This study involved 60 participating superintendents who provided feedback to the authors about their self-identified professional development needs and their preferences for professional development delivery. The researchers make a strong case for the importance of grounding superintendent professional development decisions in a set of performance standards despite the fact that the research indicated that superintendents’ professional development experiences were often generalized, were rarely standards-based, and often employed questionable pedagogical practices.